Restoring Enterprise to its Place in the Body of Christ

Business as Mission, Kingdom Business, Great Commission Companies, Purpose-Driven Business, Enterprising Ministry, Kingdom Entrepreneurship - It goes by many names, but there is a new, and yet very old calling in the Global Body of Christ. Many believers are called to walk out their calling in the marketplace. A subset of those believers are called to plant and grow businesses that serve God and the rest of the church. It is their ministry, enterprising ministry, that we describe, support, and explore here.

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Haiti Update for Relief Teams

 USAID put out This map on 2/26/2010 shows the current status of  aid to Haiti Earthquaqe relief. If you are planning a mission trip or a BAM activity for Haiti Relief, you need this map.

On January 25, the USAID Disaster Assistance Response Team (USAID/DART) coordinated the donation of USAID/OFDA-funded U.S. urban search and rescue (USAR) tent supplies to the U.N. Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and area hospitals, including a total of seven tents to the University of Miami field hospital at the Port-au-Prince airport and the Port-au-Prince General Hospital and three tents to the Foyer L’Escale Orphanage in northern Port-au-Prince. UNICEF plans to utilize the tents to establish child-friendly spaces at the Foyer L’Escale orphanage, complementing efforts between UNICEF and the Government of Haiti (GoH) Ministry of Social Affairs to increase support for earthquake-affected populations.

  •  On January 25, two USAID/OFDA-funded flights carrying more than 5,400 hygiene kits and 5,000 body bags arrived in Port-au-Prince.
  • On January 26, one USAID/OFDA-funded flight carrying 18,000 water containers, nearly 2,500 hygiene kits, and four water storage bladders arrived in Port-au-Prince.
  • On January 26, USAID/OFDA provided $9 million in additional assistance to UNICEF for health, nutrition, protection, and water, sanitation, and hygiene activities in earthquake-affected areas. The recent contribution increases total USAID/OFDA humanitarian assistance to Haiti for the earthquake to more than $161 million to date.

  • Estimated Deaths 112,250 GoH
  •  January 24 People Displaced in Port-au-Prince Metropolitan Area 609,000 GoH
  • January 22 People Departing Port-au-Prince 236,000 GoH
  • January 26 Estimated Affected Population 3 million U.N.
Current Situation

  • On January 25, the GoH reported that population movements from Port-au-Prince to rural areas had slowed, with an estimated 1,000 people departing the capital between January 24 and 25.
  • Accounting for recent population movements, the GoH estimates that nearly 236,000 people have departed Port-au-Prince for rural areas since the earthquake.
  • An estimated 62,500 people are currently seeking shelter in Artibonite Department. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH)
  • According to UNICEF, relief agencies continue to deliver water to an estimated 115 sites throughout Port-au-Prince, reaching at least 235,000 people.
  • The GoH is rapidly expanding water distribution to areas outside Port-au-Prince, according to the USAID/DART.
  • USAID/DART WASH specialists continue to assess water conditions in spontaneous settlements and hospitals throughout Port-au-Prince, Léogâne, and Jacmel.
  • The USAID/DART continues to inform relief agencies 1 USAID’s Office of Food for Peace (USAID/FFP) 2 USAID’s Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID/OTI) 3 USAID/Dominican Republic (USAID/DR) 4 U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)

  • Wolrd Food Programme  (WFP) has conducted initial assessments in areas sheltering displaced persons, including locations in Artibonite and Northwest departments.
  • WFP is currently working with implementing partners to scale-up assistance in these areas. 

  •  On January 25, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) distributed dry rations of soy-fortified bulgur, lentils, and vegetable oil to approximately 1,300 households in Port-au-Prince.
  • CRS plans to continue distributions in the coming days.
Logistics and Emergency Relief Supplies
  • As of January 26, Shelter and Non-Food Item Cluster partners reported the distribution of emergency relief supplies to more than 119,000 beneficiaries since the start of the response, according to IOM. \
  • On January 25, USAID/DART staff reported the delivery of more than 1,600 kitchen sets, benefiting approximately 8,160 individuals, and 210 rolls of plastic sheeting, benefiting an estimated 10,500 people, from the USNS LUMMUS. The commodities delivered on January 26 supplemented the more than 1,500 kitchen sets and 190 rolls of plastic sheeting delivered from the USNS LUMMUS on January 24.
  • The USAID/DART consigned the emergency relief supplies to IOM for distribution to populations in affected areas. Health
  • According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the GoH Ministry of Health (MoH) is shifting response focus from emergency surgical care to primary health care and hygiene promotion.
  • In addition, Health Cluster partners have identified the medical needs of displaced populations in rural areas outside Port-au-Prince as a key priority, according to the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).
  •  The Health Cluster estimates that 20,000 people require medical assistance in Jérémie, Grand Anse Department.

  • At the Nutrition Cluster meeting on January 25,UNICEF presented a list of nutrition supplies available in Haiti, including Vitamin A, Plumpy’Nut, F-75 and F-100 milk, amoxicillin, oral-rehydration salts (ORS), zinc, and scales for infants.
  • UNICEF and PAHO are planning to establish procurement guidelines so that relief agencies may request nutrition supplies from UNICEF and medical supplies from PAHO.
  • In coordination with a request from the GoH MoH, UNICEF plans to collaborate with the Child Protection Cluster to coordinate immunizations and distribution of Vitamin A tablets, ORS, and fortified biscuits in orphanages.
  • According to the USAID/DART, the Nutrition Cluster has established a sub-cluster on infant and young child nutrition and community-based management of acute malnutrition.
  •  Relief agencies Concern, Save the Children, Infant and Young Child Nutrition, and Action Contre la Faim are leading the sub-cluster and collaborating closely with the GoH.

  • USAID/DART staff report that 140,000 plastic sheets are either in Haiti or en route to contribute to addressing displaced person shelter needs. 
  •  According to the Shelter Cluster, as many as 800,000 people may be living in spontaneous settlements in Port-au-Prince.
  • The USAID/DART emphasizes that plastic sheeting—when combined with rope or other framing material as part of a kit—represents a preferred shelter option to tents. Plastic sheeting kits provide a larger living space, have more flexible applications to social and site conditions, can be used as transitional construction material for permanent shelter solutions, can be provided at a significantly lower cost, and serve as an economic stimulus to local economies, as the material is often purchased locally rather than imported, as tents tend to be.
Search and Rescue Operations
  • The Fairfax County USAR team remains on standby in order to respond to additional requests for assistance if needed. To date, U.S. USAR teams have rescued 47 people, while U.S. and other international teams combined have rescued 134 people.
Haiti Earthquake – January 26, 2010

On January 12, USAID/OFDA activated a Washington, D.C.-based Response Management Team to support the USAID/DART that deployed to Haiti early on January 13 to assess humanitarian conditions and coordinate activities with the humanitarian community. The 32-member USAID/DART continues to assess priority humanitarian needs and identify emergency relief supplies for immediate delivery to Port-au-Prince.

As of January 22, DoD had committed approximately $126 million in support of the Haiti earthquake relief effort. DoD has been supporting the humanitarian response through transportation of emergency relief personnel and commodities into Haiti. USG HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO HAITI FOR THE EARTHQUAKE FY 2010 Implementing Partner Activity Location Amount USAID/OFDA

ASSISTANCE1 DoD Logistics and Relief Supplies Affected Areas $40,500,000 U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Search and Rescue, Emergency Response Activities Affected Areas $36,000,000 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Health Affected Areas $33,000,000 IOM Logistics and Relief Supplies Affected Areas $7,000,000 OCHA Humanitarian Coordination and Information Management

 The Rest @ USAID .gov

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Lee Royal

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

BAM Survey Conclusions Still Relevant

What follows below my comments is an excerpt from a 2007 BAM Study from Kervin Ring's site. The survey sample size was a bit small (497 people in 38 countries), but the conclusions remain useful. It appears that, at the time of the survey, at least among survey participants, 10% may have been involved in "creative access" business ventures, and that the remaining 90% had a significant negative response to those who engage in creative access business.

It is  a personal observation that now, three years later, most "creative aceess" ventures have either failed or become transparent. The premise of these ventures were flawed, and reflected a lack of understanding of kingdom business culture by traditional ministry leaders. In essence, asking God to bless a creative access business is no less a problem than a violation of the James 4:3 warning: "When you ask, you do not receive, because you ask with wrong motives, that you may spend what you get on your pleasures."  it might read "When you ask (pray) you do not recieve because you ask with the wrong motives, a motive to lie about who you are."  A "watcher" in a "creative access" target country woud say:
  • " a goat that pretends to be a sheep may some day be a snake pretending to be a sheep. Once a pretender, always a pretender. Nothing he says can be trusted."
Next, I agree with the following survey premise that Commercial Function, licitness, and management oversight are hallmarks of a genuine business as mission enterprise, or enterpising ministry. Without these key ellements, registering a business in a limited access country becomes a sham, unworthy to be associated with the name of Jesus, destructive of genuine evangalistic activity.

Tom Sudyk stated it more simply and starkly one day while he helped us review some business we were planning.

"If there's no Profit, There's No Business"

I agree.

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Lee Royal

(the Survey Summary)

In order for Business as Mission objectives to drive the strategic management of BAM companies, the structure of a BAM company must align with those objectives.

Different strategies that integrate business activities with ministry efforts hold to different principles on how a business should operate. How each of these principles is manifest within a business is a subject of much debate. Core principles such as operating with integrity and honesty are universally accepted as important to Christians in business. However, research shows that three key considerations regarding [1] structure (commercial function) [2], licitness[3], and management oversight) are not universally accepted as vital elements of Business as Mission (Exhibit 5).

  • Nearly 10 percent of respondents do not think that commercial function and legal structure are vital for Business as Mission. (5.1 and 5.2)
  • One out of four respondents expressed no opinion about whether an advisory board is a vital element of a BAM business. (5.3)
Management Considerations

  • Aspects of corporate structure (licitness and commercial function) are recognized by 77 percent of respondents as important elements of BAM companies.
  • Both licitness and commercial function are considered to strongly influence a business’s ability to make a profit. Both also influence evangelism efforts and focus on the developing world.
  • A BAM company’s commercial function influences that company’s role in building the local economy.
These results highlight the important role that a Business as Mission company plays in its marketplace and host country. Honoring the laws of a host country and offering a valuable product/service create legitimacy, which puts the business in a position of influence allowing it to achieve its goals.

  • Commercial function has a negative correlation with providing access to countries.
the negative correlation between "Is a commercial enterprise" and "Provides access to many locations" may be a result of skepticism that has been created by missionaries that have taken advantage of countries’ openness to gain access with no intention of pursuing successful business.
  • Simply using BAM to gain access is contrary to legitimate market activities and as a result, associating BAM with creative access has a negative connotation.
Management oversight
  • Survey respondents heavily favor Management participation in discipling and accountability relationships (87 percent).
  •  Additionally, 68 percent agree that BAM companies should have an advisory board.
Results indicate that the primary influence of these two types of management support is on the company’s evangelism efforts and focus on the developing world.

There is a general belief that support at the management level is valuable; however, this support is focused on the missional aspects of the company.
  • The fact that respondents are doubtful of partnering with social service agencies and that management oversight does not have a perceived contribution to a company’s ability to make a profit, points to an inclination with BAM operators to hold back from engaging outsiders.
Whether this is a result of their entrepreneurial nature, a byproduct of the sacred/secular divide, or a reaction to unrealistic demands placed on BAM operators by people with very little at stake, if the BAM movement can find an acceptable way of engaging outside support, it would greatly increase the impact BAM has.


Sustainability is considered a highly important aspect of Business as Mission, with over 85 percent of respondents agreeing that
  • Net profitability of the organization,
  • Growth in capital base for future development of kingdom businesses,
  • Development of a succession plan are valuable elements.
Respondents correlate net profitability with the ability to build the local economy and to bless the nation.
Respondents also believe that developing a succession plan facilitates the ability to evangelize and the focus on the developing world.

in order to have a lasting impact, BAM companies must be able to survive.

Additionally, given the dynamic environments in which these companies operate, it is important for BAM operators to plan for the long term. Considering that company leadership largely determines the mission strategy of a BAM company, a key area of concern is planning for transitions in leadership in such a way the preserves the company’s focus on its ministry.
All three aspects of sustainability are negatively correlated with the goal of gaining access through Business as Mission.
Implication: these results also highlight the association with creative access and spurious business efforts, since sustainability is not a key area of concern for illegitimate businesses.


[1] The survey data is not robust enough to draw inferences about the nature of such links; however, it does point to the possibility of their existence. Further study of such correlations is important for helping to address the complexities of Business as Mission.

[2] Commercial function refers to the role a company plays in the marketplace, specifically the activities of providing goods and services and may involve financial, commercial, and industrial aspects. (Exhibit 5.1)

[3] Licitness refers to conformity to the applicable provisions of the laws of the countries of operation of a company. (Exhibit 5.2)
The Rest @ Kingdom Strategist

Monday, January 18, 2010

Business as Mission Books

Suggested Reading on Kingdom Business
As compiled by and with acknowledgement to Regent College


Befus, David R. (2002).
Kingdom business: The ministry of promoting economic development.
Miami: Latin America Mission.
Befus writes from his experience in integrating ministry with economic activity and presents five models of integration. There are both Spanish and English translations.
Burkett, Larry (1998).
Business by the Book: The complete guide of Biblical principles for the workplace.
Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.
Practical advice for how to apply Biblical principles to business operation and management.

Bussau, David, and Russell Mask (2003).
Christian micro enterprise development: An introduction. Regnum Books.
A handbook to equip practitioners and donors to build Christ’s Kingdom through Christian MED.

Chan, Kim-kwong, and Tetsauno Yamamori (2002).
Holistice entrepreneurs in China: A handbook on the World Trade Organization and new opportunities for Christians.
Pasadena, CA.: William Carey International University Press.
Practical information on the economic changes taking place in China and the opportunities for Christian business entrepreneurs being created.

Danker, William J., Beaver. R. Pierce ().
Profit for the lord: Economic activities in Moravian missions and the basel mission trading company.

De Soto, Hernando (2000).
The Mystery of capital, why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else.
New York, NY: Basis Books.
Examines the problem of why some countries succeed at capitalism and others fail. He finds a link to the legal structure of property and property rights of each nation.

Eldred, Ken (2003).
God Is At Work: Transforming people and nations through business.
Ventura, CA: Regal Books
Deals with Kingdom business as an emerging mission movement, one in which Christian business people are meeting significant spiritual and economic needs in the developing world. They are pursuing for-profit business ventures designed to facilitate the transformation of people and nations. There are both Spanish and English translations

Gibson, Dan (1997).
Avoiding the tentmaker trap. Ontario, Canada: WEC International.
Practical guidance for the prospective tentmaker, including a comprehensive resource list of books and organizations.

Greene, Mark (2001).
Supporting Christians at work: A practical guide for busy pastors.
London: London Institute for Contemporary Christianity

Grudem, Wayne (2003).
Business for the Glory of God: The Bibles Teaching on the Moral Goodness of Business. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway.)
Examines how business, in particular ownership, employment, profit, money, inequality of possessions, competition etc. may glorify God.

Hamilton, Don (1987).
Tentmakers Speak: Practical Advice from Over 400 Missionary Tentmakers. Duarte, CA.: TMQ Research, 1987.
Research led book sharing insights from tentmakers’ real life experiences.

Hammond, Pete, R. Paul Stevens and Todd Svanoe (2002).
Marketplace Annotated Bibliography: A Christian Guide to Books on Work, Business and Vocation. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Comprehensive listing of 1200 books on marketplace-faith integration. The authors include a historical survey of the marketplace-faith movement and a variety of thematic indexes.

Hill, Dr. Alexander (1997).
Just Business - Christian Ethics for the Marketplace. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.
An introduction to business ethics and help for examining ethical issues that arise in any business development context.

Humphreys, Kent (2004).
Lasting investments: A pastor’s guide for equipping workplace leaders to leave a spiritual legacy. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.
Rediscovering the common goals and visions that pastors and workplace leaders share.

Knoblauch, Jorg and Jurg Opprecht (2004).
Kingdom Companies: How 24 Executives Around the Globe Serve Jesus Christ Through Their Businesses. Self published.
Introduces kingdom companies - those businesses that operate on biblical values and as a means of spreading the gospel. Highlights principles for kingdom companies through short company profiles.

Lai, Patrick (2003).
Window businesses: Doing tentmaking in the 10/40 window. Pasadena, CA: William Carey International University Press.
Practical guide for starting businesses as a tentmaker in countries at various economic stages.

Lewis, Jonathan, ed. (1997).
Working your way to the nations: A guide to effective tentmaking. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
A study guide and handbook on tentmaking, with a series of practical essays by experienced specialists. Available at – free to download in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Korean and Arabic.

Myers, Bryant (1999).
Walking with the poor: Principles and practices of transformational development., (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis.)Theological basis for economic development and holistic mission, with discussion on the application of these principles.

Nash, Laura, Ken Blanchard and Scotty McLennan (2001).
Church on sunday, work on monday: The challenge of fusing Christian values with business life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
A guide to improving communication between the worlds of church and business. The authors draw on extensive research including case studies and interviews, and define the obstacles to such communication.

Novak, Michael (1996).
Business as a calling: work and the examined life. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Examines the interplay between religion and business and the effect on the moral and social condition of a nation.

Olsen, J. Gunnar (2004).
Business unlimited: Memories of the coming kingdom, (ICCC, 2002: Scandinavia Publishing House.
The autobiography of Gunnar Olson, founder of the International Christian Chamber of Commerce. A story of an intimate walk with God which has lead to the author being used to influence nations.

Prahalad, C.K. (2005).
The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.
The relationship between business and development in developing nations. Examining the entrepreneurial ability and buying power of the poor.

Rundle, Steve, and Tom Steffen (2003).
Great Commission Companies: The emerging role of business in missions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Introduces principles for Great Commission Companies in the context of globalization. Provides five case studies from businesses involved in mission.

Silvoso, Ed (2002).
Anointed for business: How Christians can use their influence in the marketplace to change the world. Ventura, California: Regal.
Silvoso shows how ministry in the marketplace should go hand in hand with building God’s kingdom and transforming society. He urges the church to overcome the barriers that remain to integrating business and ministry.

Schlossberg, Herbert, Ronald J. Sider and Vinay Samuel, Eds. (1994).
Christianity and economics in the Post-cold war era. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Developed from the second Oxford Conference on Christian faith and economics, this book reproduces the 1990 Oxford Declaration itself and eleven critical responses on the subject of Christian faith and economics.

Suter, Heinz and Dr. Marco Gmur (1997).
Business Power for God’s Purpose. Greng, Switz.:VKG Publishing.
Introduction to the role of business in the task of world evangelization, including history and ethics and some cases.

Swarr, Sharon B. and Dwight Nordstrom (1999).
Transform the world: Biblical vision and purpose for business. Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development.
A Biblical introduction to the domain of business followed by some practical guides and principles for developing ‘Great Commission businesses’.

Tsukahira, Peter (2000).
My father’s business. Self-published.
By drawing from his experience as both a pastor and a business leader, Tsukahira gives guidelines for ministry in the marketplace.

Wilson, J. Christy, Jr. (1979).
Today's tentmakers. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale.
Introduction to the idea of tentmaking from one of the founding fathers of the modern tentmaking movement.

Yamamori, Tetsunao (1993).
Penetrating missions' final frontier: A new strategy for unreached people. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Yamamori presents a challenge for tentmakers to go out into places other missionaries cannot, all in the light of the remaining task of world missions.

Yamamori, Tetsunao, and Kenneth A. Eldred, Eds. (2003).
On kingdom business: Transforming missions through entrepreneurial strategies. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.
This is a thorough introduction to the concept of Kingdom business from a broad range of experienced contributors, and is divided into three parts: case studies, essays and conclusions.

Articles and Papers:

Befus, D. (2002, April). Kingdom business: A new frontier in missions.
Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 204-209.

Dwight Baker (2001). William Carey and the business model for missions. Unpublished Manuscript.

K.C. Chan and Scott McFarlane (2002, October). Business as missions: Stewardship and leadership development in a global economy at Christian Business Faculty Association annual conference, Northwest Nazarene University.

Davies, Stanley. (2001, October). Business & mission or business as mission: A report by Stanley Davies. Global Connections, London.

Derek Christensen (1997). Training endurance food for serious tenmakers. International Journal of Frontier Missions 14, 3, 133-138.

John Cox (1997). The Tentmaking movement in historical perspective. International Journal of Frontier Missions 14, 3, 111-117.

Denise Daniels, Tim Dearborn, Randel S. Franz, Gary L. Karns, Jeff Van Duzer and Kenman L. Wong (2003, July). Toward a theology of business. The Fifth International Symposium on Catholic Social and Management Education, Bilbao, Spain. -

Judith Dean (2003, January). “Why trade matters for the poor.” The 20th Anniversary Conference Association of Christian Economists, Washington, DC.

Norm Ewert (1992). The role of business enterprise in Christian mission. Transformation 9, 7-14.

Stanley J. Grenz (1999). God’s business: A foundation for Christian mission in the marketplace. Crux 35, 1, 19-25.

Guthrie, S. (1995, November 13). Tentmaking put down stakes in missions movement. Christianity Today, 39, 13, 80(2).

Hammond, A. L., Prahalad, C. K. (2004, May 11). Selling to the poor. FP Foreign Policy.

Patrick Lai (1998). Starting a business in a restricted access nation. International Journal of Frontier Missions 15, 1, 41-46.

Bob Lupton. (2003, August). Markets and missions. EC Institute.

Mark Markiewicz (1999). Business as mission, or how two grocers changed the course of a nation” at Central Asia business consultation. Published by Business Professional Network.

McLoughlin, M. (2001, May). Back to the future of missions: The case for marketplace ministry. Youth with A Mission (YWAM), Marketplace Mission.

Patrick Lai (2000). Tentmaking: In search of a workable definition. Unpublished Manuscript.

David Llewellyn (2004). The witness of work: Business as mission. Unpublished Manuscript.

Scott McFarlane (2004). Six ways to get involved in the business as missions movement. Regent Business Review 11.

Robert Morris (1998). Shrewd yet innocent: Thoughts on tentmaking integrity. International Journal of Frontier Missions 15, 1, 5-8.

Dwight Nordstrom and Jim Nielsen (1998, Janaury-March). How business is integral to tentmaking. International Journal of Frontier Missions 15, 1, 15-18.

J.I. Packer (1990). The Christian’s purpose in business. In Richard C. Chewning, Ed. Biblical Principles and Business: The practice. Colorado Springs: NavPress.

Padilla, C. R. (2000, April-June). Holistic mission: Crossing frontiers to transform lives.

Price, D. J. (1997, July-September). The tentmaker’s mandate. International Journal of Frontier Missions, 14. 3.

Jim Reapsome (1997). Paul: The nonprofessional missionary. Occasional Bulletin.

Steve Rundle (2000). Ministry, profits and the schizophrenic tentmaker. Evangelical Missions Quarterly 36, 3, 292-300.

Steve Rundle and Tom Steffen (2004). Building a Great Commission Company. Regent Business Review 11.

Dr. Kent W. Seibert and Scott McFarlane (2004, October). For the love of business: Demonstrating the reality of God through the practice of business. The 20th Annual Christian Business Faculty Association Conference.

Ruth E. Siemens (1998). Why did Paul make tents? A Biblical basis for tentmaking. GO Paper A-1.

Ruth E. Siemens (1997). The tentmakers and their Churches: Mutual responsibility. GO Paper A-9.

Ruth E. Siemens (1997). The tentmaker’s preparation for work and witness. GO Paper A-5.

Karen Schmidt (1999). Versatile vocation – Using marketplace skills to reach the world for Christ. World Christian, 31-33.

R. Paul Stevens (2001). The marketplace: Mission field or mission. Crux 37, 3, 7-16.

Sharon B. Swarr and Dwight Nordstrom (1999). Best practice for business as missions. Transform the World.

Smith, K. (1998, January-March). Tentmaking: The practical dimension. International Journal of Frontier Missions, 15, 1.

Suter, H., & Gmur, M. (1998, January-March). Business power for God’s purpose. International Journal of Frontier Missions, 15, 1.

Gary Taylor (1998). Don’t call me a tentmaker. International Journal of Frontier Missions 15, 1, 23-24.

Tsukahira, Peter (1997). The business of the kingdom: Guidelines for businessmen and women in the relationship between business and ministry.

Mats Tunehag (2000). Business as mission. Unpublished Manuscript.

John H. Warton, Jr. (2002). Employment and the dignity of life – the economic agenda of the Church. Convention of Christian Businessmen in Panama and Argentina.

J. Christy Wilson, Jr. (1997). Successful tentmaking depends on mission agencies. International Journal of Frontier Missions 14, 3, 141-143.

The Rest @ Now People (Korea)

Saturday, January 9, 2010


 A group of global Christian business leaders got together in 2004 and developed an historic working document, the Lusassane Occasional Paper 59 guiding an emerging concept called Business as Mission ( BAM. Luassane leaders recongized that this was different from Tentmaking Some BAM pioneering events and organizations which followed were:
The first acheivement of the authors of Lusassane Occasional Paper 59 was to define what BAM was, was and what it was not, for clarification purposes.

-Lee Royal


The purpose of this chapter is to briefly clarify a few key terms and
expressions. The descriptions used here are simply to aid us to communicate clearly
and consistently. It is not our aim to create a ‘Business as mission orthodoxy’ or
terminology, or to exclude groups or initiatives that prefer other terms and definitions.

Other expressions commonly used in the movement include ‘transformational
business’, ‘great commission companies’ and ‘kingdom business’. The authors
recognise that in some contexts ‘Business as mission’ is not the most helpful or
preferred term. The expression ‘Business as mission’ itself can be considered a fairly
broad term that encompasses various areas where business and missions connect.
Our terms here are further limited both culturally and linguistically, since this
paper was prepared in English.

We expect alternative expressions to be developed which communicate meaningfully in other languages, and other religious, political and cultural settings. The parameters outlined in this document should beconsidered as a ‘dotted line’ that allows for future change and for anomalies which will force us to reconsider and revise according to the situation and its specific needs.

Business as mission is based on the principle of...HOLISTIC MISSION Holistic mission attempts to bring all aspects of life and godliness into an organic biblical whole. This includes God's concerns for such business related issues as economic development, employment and unemployment, economic justice and the use and distribution of natural and creative resources among the human family.

These are aspects of God’s redemptive work through Jesus Christ and the Church.
Evangelism and social concerns are often still addressed as though they were separate and unrelated from each other. This assumes a divide between what we consider ‘sacred’ or ‘spiritual’ and what we consider ‘secular’ or ‘physical’. The biblical worldview rather is one that promotes an integrated and seamless holistic
view of life. Ministry should not be compartmentalised or fragmented into the ‘spiritual’ and the ‘physical’. Business as mission is an expression of this truly holistic paradigm.

Business is a mission, a calling, a ministry in its own right.

Human activity reflects our divine origin, having been created to be creative, to create good things by good processes, for us to enjoy – with others. Business as mission has a Kingdom of God perspective... KINGDOM BUSINESS

Kingdom businesses start from the theological premise that all Christians have a calling to love and serve God with all of their heart, soul, strength and mind, as well as to love and serve their neighbours. God calls people to work for His kingdom in business just as certainly as He calls people to work in other kinds of
ministry or mission ventures. In this paper, we will often use the term ‘kingdom business’ rather than
‘Business as mission-business’. We recognise the importance of extending God’s kingdom through business in any context. However, we want to highlight the biblical mandate to serve the poor and oppressed, in particular in those areas where the gospel has yet to be received. This will lead us to a focus on cross-cultural activity and should draw our attention to areas of endemic poverty and/or unevangelised communities. We acknowledge that this does not automatically suppose the crossing of international boarders and will be necessary within culturally ‘near’ communities as well.

A function of Business as mission is to act as a catalyst, to inspire and encourage people to get into business and to stay in business, especially in the developing world.

Business as mission is different from but related to...WORKPLACE MINISTRIES

Workplace Ministries are primarily focused on taking the gospel to people where they work, preferably through the witness of co-workers and professional colleagues. These ministries encourage the integration of biblical principles into every aspect of business practice, to the glory of God. Business as mission naturally includes these elements of workplace ministry.

When a workplace ministry is initiated in a business owned by believers to intentionally advance the kingdom of God, there will be substantial overlap.Workplace ministry can choose to limit its focus solely "within" the business context itself. Business as mission is focused both "within" and "through" the business. It seeks to harness the power and resource of business for intentional mission impact in the community or nation at large. Workplace ministry may occur in any setting.

However, Business as mission is intentional about the "to all peoples" mandate, and seeks out areas with the greatest spiritual and physical needs.

Business as mission is different from but related to...TENTMAKING

"Tentmaking" refers principally to the practice of Christian professionals, who support themselves financially by working as employees or by engaging in business. In this way they are able to conduct their ministries without depending upon donors and without burdening the people they serve. Tentmaking infers the integration of work and witness, with an emphasis on encouraging evangelism by lay Christians
rather than clergy and ministry professionals. Where tentmakers are part of business ventures that facilitate their mission goals, there is substantial overlap with Business as mission. However, although a tentmaker might be a part of a business, the business itself might not be an integral part of the ministry as it is with Business as mission. Business as mission sees business both as the medium and the message. Business as mission most often involves ‘job-making’ as an integral part of its mission. Tentmaking may involve this, but is more often simply about ‘job-taking’ – taking up employment somewhere in
order to facilitate ministry.

Business as mission is different from...BUSINESS FOR MISSIONS

Profits from business can be donated to support missions and ministries. This is different from Business as mission. One might call this business for missions, using business ventures to fund other kinds of ministry. We recognise that profit from a business can be used to support “missions” and that this is good and valid. Likewise employees can use some of their salary to give to charitable causes. While this should be encouraged, none of us would like to be operated on by a surgeon whose only ambition is to make money to give to the church! Instead we expect he has the right skills and drive to operate with excellence, doing his job with full professional integrity. Likewise a Business as mission-business must produce more than goods and services in order to generate new wealth. It seeks to fulfil God’s kingdom purposes and values through every aspect of its operations. A 'business for mission' concept can limit business and business people to a role of funding the 'real ministry'. While funding is an important function, Business as mission is about forprofit
businesses that have a kingdom focus.

Business as mission does not condone...NON-BUSINESSES AND NONMISSIONS

Two approaches to business that do not come within the scope of ‘Business as mission’ by any definition are:

  • (1) Fake businesses that are not actually functioning businesses, but exist solely to provide visas for missionaries to enter countries otherwise closed to them.
  • (2) Businesses that purport to have Christian motivations but which operate only for private economic advantage and not for the kingdom of God. Neither do we mean businesses run by Christians with no clear and defined kingdom strategy in place.
Business as mission pursues...PROFIT

Business must be financially sustainable, producing goods or services that people are willing to pay for. Sustainability implies that the activity is profitable. Profits are an essential element of all businesses, in all cultures. Without profit the business cannot survive and fulfil its purpose. Accordingly, Business as mission - businesses are real business that genuinely exist to generate wealth and profits. Business as mission does not view profits as inherently evil, bad or unbiblical. Quite the contrary, profits are good, desired and beneficial to God and His purposes, as long as they are:
  • not oppressive,
  • or derived from gouging customers
  • or selling products and service that do no honour Christ and His gospel.
Temporary subsidies may be utilised to establish a Business as mission initiative. Permanent subsidies or financial support without expectation of ultimate profitability are closer to charitable or donor-based ministries than Business as mission based ministries.

The business of business is business. And the business of Business as mission is business with a kingdom of God purpose and perspective.

Business as mission comes in all...SHAPES AND SIZES

The methodologies, as well as the business and ministry strategies used, will be creatively diverse, just as God created us in infinite variety. Does the size of the business matter? Yes and No! Christian micro-enterprise programmes exist that help provide necessary income for families and individuals resulting in community development, churches being planted and discipleship taking place. In short, Christian micro-enterprise development has been well accepted and is highly effective for the kingdom. A significant body of work already exists dedicated to it. It has a legitimate place in the broader definition and practice of Business as mission.

However, our focus will be on larger scale business, where there has been a comparative lack of attention. If we are to tackle the enormity of the challenge before us we need to think and act bigger, beyond micro to small, medium and large size businesses.

The Russian Mafia also creates jobs and gives people a chance to earn money. Creating jobs and earning money is not an end in itself. Work and business are ordained by God. Work is a human and divine activity providing a means to support our families and to contribute to the positive development of our communities
and countries. However, Business as mission is not a Christianised job creation scheme. The goal is not simply about making people materially better off. Business as mission is actively praying and incarnating Jesus’ prayer: “May your kingdom come, may your will be done” even in the marketplace. The real bottom line of Business as mission is “ad maiorem Dei gloriam”, for the greater glory of God.

Laussane Occasional Paper 59. Section 1. you can see the entirer 88 Page document here.

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Saturday, January 2, 2010

Being the Praise of God's Glory in Business

In the  2010 Sugar Bowl, Tim Tebow, Quarterback for the Florida Gators had this verse outlined under his eyes, since He knew that hundreds of thousands would be watching Him. The Twittersphere at the time logged a mixture of reactions, anger, confusion, people asking what it meant, but I have no doubt that many believers have had a chance to share this gospel message with their seeking friends as result of his action. In his Marekteplace, the football field, he was being the Praise of God's Glory. Father I bring praise to You today because of Tim Tebow's actions.

Two verses, one Chapter Earlier talked about this.

"He made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His kind intention which He purposed in Him with a view to an administration suitable to the fullness of the times, that is, the summing up of all things in Christ, things in the heavens and things on the earth. In Him also we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to His purpose who works all things after the counsel of His will,to the end that we who were the first to hope in Christ would be to the praise of His glory. "

Ephesisans 1:9-14 (NASB), Biblegateway

Administration here is the Greek word oikonomia, specifically a religious distribution done over a household by its steward. In other words,

God distributed to us the religious knowledge of His will as a part of His work, at just the right time, so that we could see that all things in the heavens and the earth are summed up in Jesus.

In God's unfolding Story of God revealing himslef to us, The event of Jesus in history, the events of His life, His words, His Actions, in these are the Will of God. It was God's will to give us an inheritance before we were born, the purose of this inheritance is to used being the Praise of His Glory.
Being the Praise of His Glory......What does this mean for us called to the Marketplace?

It means
  • Publically aknowleding complete dependance on God in all Marketplace Activities
  • Ambassadorial behavior representing Christ well.
  • Being available, useabel and useful to God for His purposes there.
  • It means that your actions will bring good things to your part of the marketeplace
  • It means crediting God in all things, so that He is prasied.
Father, teach me to walk in the inheritance you gave us in your Holy Spirit as we carry out our calling in the Marketplace. Teach me that I cannot carry my assignment out there without completely depending on you. Teach me the ambassadorial skills that I need. Help me be available to you at work, not just "holding my breath" until I can breath again among the body of Christ. Make my performance at every level worth of bringing honor toy our name. Father, allow me to bring success to wherever you have me,  that I may bring credability to all you uhave to say through me.  May I never try to steal your glory, but serve You and other before myself @ work, and may I be the priase of Your glory in business.

In Jesus name, I ask these things for your Glory and Honor.